Seventeen days after the death of President Paul von Hindenberg, Germany held a referendum to legitimize Hitler’s assumption of dictatorial power. On August 1st, Hitler had combined the offices of Chancellor and President into the position of Fuhrer. On August 2nd, the day of Hindenberg’s death, he assumed his new powers. Soon after, on August 19th, 1934, the German people voted overwhelmingly in favor of the end of German democracy.
The Enabling Act had left Hindenberg, the president, as the only person who could remove Hitler from power. When Hindenberg died, Hitler ignored his command that he restore the Hohenzollern monarchy and instead took the last steps towards securing complete control. He wanted to give a veneer of popular legitimacy to his takeover, and so decided to hold a referendum in which the entire adult population would vote on whether or not they approved of his actions. The lead up to the vote saw a great deal of intimidation and elector fraud. Storm troopers stood at polling stations and watched as votes were cast, people were discouraged from voting in secret polling stations and many clubs were marched to open areas where they would cast their votes in public. Jewish people, Poles, and other ethnic minorities were in fact not prevented from casting negative votes, as the Nazis intended to use a lack of support in areas with high populations of these groups as evidence of their disloyalty. Overall, 88% of votes recorded were in favor of the creation of the position of Fuhrer. Hamburg, the city with the least support, saw 80% yes votes. The overwhelming support was used by the Nazi regime as justification for their continued totalitarian rule.
While the referendum was certainly not conducted in a free and democratic manner, it is likely that a majority of Germans did support Hitler’s takeover. Simply put, most Germans did not value democracy, and many looked at the economic and political chaos of the past decade and thought that democracy had failed and had to be replaced. When a people do not value democracy in of itself, they take a more cynical view and look at the practical benefits of each system. While democracy was not at fault for the great depression or the street fighting between Nazis and Communists, the German people thought it was and so supported a party that promised stability and prosperity at the cost of civil rights and liberties.
While the Wright Brothers are generally thought to have the first powered heavier-than-air flight, there are several other claimants to that achievement. One such man was Karl Jatho, a German inventor. He claimed to have made a powered flight on August 18th of 1903.
Jatho was born on February 3rd, 1873, and had a career as a public servant in Hanover. He developed a keen interest in air travel and soon began building prototype airplanes. Beginning in August of 1903 he claimed to have begun making a series of ever-longer flights. Whether his aircraft was controlled or not is a matter of some debate. A 1907 news article stated that it was, while a 1902 document says that the aircraft lacked a controlled mechanism. Jatho’s notes state that he made a flight of 60 meters months prior to the Wright Brother’s flights, although theirs were longer. However, Jatho failed to have his flight certified by witnesses until 1933. Further, subsequent attempts to fly using an exact replica of his plane had been prevented by adverse weather. Thus, his claims are not generally considered to be verified.
While the Wright Brothers almost certainly do deserve credit for being the first to make a powered and controlled flight, it is unfortunate that other pioneers of aviation are so forgotten. We are so focused on firsts that no one cares about those who were behind by just a few months. While the initial pioneers deserve a great deal of credit, their contemporaries are not so insignificant as to deserve being lost to time.
The unification of Germany into one nation was a long and complicated process. The final declaration in 1871 was the product of decades of political maneuvering and increased political and economic unity which broke down the barriers between the different German states. One important step was the treaty of alliance signed between Prussia and the Duchy of Baden on August 17, 1866.
Before the Austro-Prussian War, most German states were allied with the Empire of Austria, who opposed Prussia. However, Prussia quickly defeated Austria and her German allies. Helmuth von Moltke crushed the Austrian Army at the Battle of Sadowa and invaded several of the smaller German states. One of these states was the Grand Duchy of Baden, one of the smaller south German territories which historically had been allied with Austria. Baden was a member of the German Confederation, and Austrian-dominated league of German states meant to maintain the Emperor’s hegemony over Germany. Grand Duke Frederick succeeded his father in 1852 and had continued his pro-Austrian policy. However, the defeat of his armies forced him to withdraw from the war. His ministers resigned and on August 17th, 1866, the country signed a treaty of peace and alliance with Prussia.
Baden would quickly become a faithful ally of Prussia. Her troops fought well during the Franco-Prussian War and Duke Frederick was the first of the German leaders to hail Kaiser Wilhelm I when he was crowned Emperor of Germany. Baden remained a semi-sovereign state within the German Empire until 1918, and Frederick was its ruler until his death in 1907. Baden’s alliance with Prussia is a good example of a leader recognizing a shift in power and taking actions to preserve his own power and the safety and autonomy of his people.
Many scientists are well-known. Names like Einstein and Newton are popular even in non-scientific contexts. However, few names are known almost entirely for a single invention. Robert Bunsen himself is, unfortunately, almost completely forgotten while his invention lives on. However, Bunsen did more than simply invent the burner that is a mainstay of high school science labs. He made important contributions to chemistry. He died on August 16th, 1899.
Robert Bunsen was born in 1811 and was the son of a professor and chief librarian at the University of Gottingen. He studied chemistry at Gottingen and in 1831 obtained a PhD. During the 1830s he made his first discoveries. He discovered that iron hydroxate could be used as an antidote for arsenic poisoning and studied the chemical cacodyl. He created the Bunsen cell battery in 1841 and lost sight in his right eye after a cacodyl explosion. In 1846 he was part of an expedition to the volcanoes of Iceland. In the 1850s he began using electrolysis to produce pure metals and in 1852 he conducted the work that would lead to his reciprocity law, which details the relationship between the intensity and duration of light. In 1855 Bunsen and his lab assistant Peter Desaga perfected the Bunsen Burner, which produced a hotter and cleaner flame than those produced by earlier burners. In 1859 he began his systematic study of emission spectra of heated elements using the recently invented spectroscope. As a result of this study he discovered Cesium in 1860 and Rubidium in 1861. Bunsen was very prominent during his lifetime, and in 1877 he and Gustav Kirchhoff were the first recipients of the Davy Medal. Bunsen retired at the age of 78 and died ten years later.
By all accounts, Robert Bunsen was a humble and well-mannered person in addition to being an excellent scientist. However, his refusal to seek any patents and desire to spend most of his time doing research instead of increasing his popularity have almost certainly contributed to his contributions being mostly forgotten. It is unfortunate that the most hard-working people are often remembered far less than those who contributed comparatively little but who made their contributions in more popular fields.
The First World War was a dark and horrible conflict which saw the deaths of millions of soldiers and civilians. However, it was not fought by men in the trenches alone. Numerous instances of subterfuge were attempted by both sides in order to help swing the war in their favor. One such ploy was the Great Phenol Plot, which was an attempt to purchase the American supply of phenol so as to preempt its use in British explosive production. The plot was unveiled on August 15th, 1915.
Phenol is a chemical precursor used in organic chemistry. Importantly, it is used in both the production of aspirin and in high explosives. Immediately after WWI began Britain imposed a naval blockade of Germany. Thus, only Britain and her allies were able to engage in large-scale trade with the United States. Before the war, Britain produced most of the phenol used by American manufactures but the start of hostilities meant that British production had to be used almost exclusively for armaments. Thus, American manufacturers like Thomas Edison built phenol plants to supply domestic demand. Germany realized that this phenol could be used to make weapons for Britain, and so looked to cutting the supply off. Germany had numerous agents in the US tasked with sabotaging war production and maintaining popular support for neutrality. One agent, Hugo Schweitzer, was ordered by ambassador Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff and Interior Ministry official Heinrich Albert to buy Edison’s excess phenol using money funneled to him by the interior ministry. The phenol would go to the American subsidiary of the German company Bayer to be used in the production of aspirin, which had been disrupted by the lack of the chemical. However, the Secret Service was in the process of investigating Albert for distribution of propaganda and their agents picked up his briefcase when he forgot it on a train on June 24th, 1915. While his activities were not strictly illegal, someone in the Secret Service leaked information of them to the New York World, an anti-German newspaper. The World published the details of the plot on August 15th, forcing Albert to stop funding purchases. Schweitzer was able to secure a new source of funding and continue the operation for a few more months, but he was forced to ease all purchases by the end of the year as funding was pulled.
Although the Phenol Plot was ultimately foiled, it did benefit Germany. Enough phenol to make 4.5 million pounds of explosives was diverted and the plot made a net of two million dollars from sales of phenol. The plot may have harmed American public opinion of Germany to some small extent, but America was already turning against Germany as a result of the sinking of the Lusitania. In the end, though, the attempt to turn American production away from supplying British arms factories was futile, as shipments of weapons and resources to Britain would only grow, especially when it declared war on Germany.
Yesterday, I discussed the start of construction on the Berlin Wall. On that day a symbol of oppression began to rise in Berlin, and when it fell the people of Germany rejoiced. Today is the anniversary of the completion of the construction of an entirely different symbol, the Cologne Cathedral. The Cathedral was completed on August 14th, 1880, after six hundred and thirty-two years of construction.
A series of churches and secular buildings occupied the site of the Cologne Cathedral from the 4th century until construction began in the 13th century. In 1164, the relics of the three wise men were acquired and plans were drawn up for an appropriate building to house them in. However, construction only began when the foundation was laid down in 1248. The east wing was completed and consecrated in 1322, but construction stopped in 1473. It was difficult to secure funding for massive construction projects at the time, and further, the construction itself was difficult in the absence of machine tools. The Cologne Cathedral is not unique in its drawn-out state of partial completion. In 1842, the Kingdom of Prussia looked to completion of the Cathedral as a way to improve relations with its Catholic subjects. Original plans were used but more modern construction techniques, mainly the use of cast-iron girders, were substituted for older ones. The cathedral was completed on August 14th, 1880, and celebrations were held when it opened. It was the tallest building for four years, and is still the third tallest church in the world. The cathedral was hit by fourteen bombs during WWII but it remained standing. It was repaired by 1956, although further restorations have been conducted since then.
The Cologne Cathedral has been a spiritual symbol for centuries. While Christianity has faded in Germany along with the rest of Europe, the building still stands as a beacon of German unity and progress. Today, it stands against intolerance as ethno-nationalists march outside its walls. It has been damaged and rebuilt, a testament to its importance to the German people. While the Berlin Wall may have been built faster, the Cologne Cathedral will stand for centuries after the wall was consigned to the ash heap of history.
The Berlin Wall was the most visible symbol of communist oppression in Europe. For twenty-eight years it stood, holding the people of East Berlin captive under an oppressive government. On August 13th, 1961, the border between East and West Germany was officially closed and construction on the wall began.
After the Second World War, Germany was divided into two zones. The west was under French, British, and American occupation and the east was put under Soviet occupation. Soon, the western powers combined their zone to form the Federal Republic of Germany and shortly after the eastern portion was made into the nominally independent German Democratic Republic. However, these two states quickly saw divergent standards of living. US aid in the form of the Marshall Plan along with superior economic policies led to the standard of living in West Germany rising far faster than in East Germany. Although the main border between the two states was closed, the border between East and West Berlin remained opened, creating a loophole which allowed migration. This allowed a large number of East Germans to flee from east to west. By 1961, twenty percent of the East German population emigrated to the Federal Republic. These people were dis-proportionally young and well-educated, leading to a brain drain. The East German economy suffered and so did the prestige of its ideology, Soviet Socialism. Both the East German government and its puppet masters in the USSR realized that something had to be done. Thus, when John F. Kennedy, president at the time, said that the US would not take military action if the border in Berlin were closed, Walter Ubricht, the chair of the Socialist Unity Party, decided that the time was right to close the border and build a barrier. Thus, on August 13th, 1961, East German troops were sent to the border with orders to shoot those who attempted to cross. On that day, workers began demolishing buildings and setting up the barriers, guard towers, bunkers, and minefields that would make up the wall.
The Berlin Wall did solve the immediate problem faced by East Germany. It prevented illegal border crossings and kept the people of East Germany from fleeing west. However, in the long term it contributed to the destruction of Soviet Socialism as an acceptable ideology. The wall showed the world that the Soviet system was fundamentally inferior to the capitalist one of the west, and demonstrated that force was necessary to prevent people from choosing the west over the east. When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, the Soviet Union’s grip on Eastern Europe shattered. Its grip on the minds of the people, however, was shattered when the Berlin Wall rose.
During the Second World War, Germany was responsible for uncountable massacres, atrocities and genocides. The reasons for these acts were many, but they often boiled down to a combination of racist hatred and a brutally practical desire to eliminate resistance. These motivations were behind the Wola Massacre, the killing of tens of thousands of Poles by German soldiers. The massacre ended on August 12th, 1944.
The Warsaw Uprising began on August 1st and saw Polish Resistance attack German forces occupying the city. Large segments of the city, especially those on the left bank of the Vistula river, were liberated quickly before the Germans could organize an adequate response. Heinrich Himmler, commander of the SS, issued orders to suppress the uprising without mercy, and on August 5th German battle groups began to advance on the city from the Wola suburb in the west. The German forces consisted of SS and Wehrmacht troops along with Russian collaborators. The lead battle groups were stopped by Polish resistance and took to looting civilian houses in their areas of control and killing the inhabitants. Himmler stated that Warsaw’s population was to be killed, and the Germans, some of them from the SS Dirlewanger brigade, a unit composed of criminals and collaborators that was famous for its sadistic brutality, were all to happy to oblige. The arrival of reinforcements and the use of the Polish population as human shields for tanks allowed the Germans to push to the city center and cut resistance in Wola in half. Men from the district were conscripted into burning detachments forced to burn the bodies of the dead; most of these men were executed to eliminate witnesses. German troops burned hospitals with patients inside, executed civilians, and tortured prisoners. The massacre only ended on August 12th when the general in command, Erich von dem Bach, ordered that killings stop and for prisoners to be sent to concentration camps. In all, forty to fifty thousand people were killed in the Wola massacre.
War brings out the worst in humanity, that much has always been true. However, the particular brutality which Germany exhibited on the conquered peoples of Europe stands out as among the most evil practices ever engaged in by a nation. The factors which enabled such savagery-the dehumanization of enemy civilians, the actions and rhetoric of revered leaders, and the desperation of soldiers under fire, are not in themselves uncommon. However, in this case they were taken to extremes and combined to deprive the perpetrators of their humanity.
Martin Luther’s attacks on the Catholic Church and resulting protestant reformation shaped German and European History for centuries. Someone not often remembered is the man whose actions spurred Martin Luther to break with the church. That man was Johann Tetzel, who died on August 11th, 1519.
Tetzel was born in the town of Pirna in Saxony, then a duchy, in 1465. He entered the Dominican Order after studying philosophy and theology at Leipzig University. The Dominican Order was dedicated to opposing heresy, and it was to this task that Tetzel dedicated his efforts during his early years. He was successful as a preacher and in 1502 Cardinal Giovanni di’Medici, a future pope, commissioned him to preach the Jubilee indulgence. The Jubilee was a year of pardon for sins that generated a great deal of pilgrimage and thus revenue for the church. In 1509 Tetzel was appointed an inquisitor of Poland and in that office acted to reinforce the Catholic faith there. In 1517 he was given the role that would make him infamous, that of commissioner of indulgences for Archbishop Albrecht. He was put in charge of selling indulgences to fund the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica. Indulgences were traditionally remittances which when bought would release a family member of the purchaser from purgatory if they had failed to have last rights administered. However, the extravagances of the church necessitated a large income, and to that end Tetzel made wild claims about the ability of an indulgence to absolve one of future sins. His selling of these indulgences inspired Luther to write his 95 Theses, two of which were explicitly dedicated to attacking indulgences. Although Tetzel initially gained favor with the church for attacking Luther’s writings, accusations of fraud and immorality led him to retire to the Dominican Monastery in Leipzig. He died in 1519, not quite in disgrace but certainly in infamy.
Johann Tetzel is one of the best examples of a man who influenced history through his failures rather than through his successes. His initially successful, of not outstanding career, came to a quick end when his corruption was exposed by Martin Luther and his reputation tarnished. His selling of indulgences was not abnormal for the time. The Catholic Church was immensely corrupt, a Medici did become Pope after all, and its leaders flaunted their disregard for church doctrine with their mistresses and children. Tetzel was simply in the wrong place at the wrong time. Specifically, he was close to Martin Luther, who would become a historical giant largely at Tetzel’s expense.
Although the Soviet Union largely held the initiative on the Eastern Front after the Battle of Kursk, the weakened German armies were still able to put up significant resistance throughout 1944. At the Battle of Narva, the Soviet assaults were held back by soldiers of the Wehrmacht and SS. Although Narva itself fell to the Red Army, the Soviets failed to achieve their goal, to retake Estonia, and suffered heavy casualties and were forced to cease their offensive on August 10th, 1944.
After the failure of the Siege of Leningrad, Germany was pushed back to the Baltics and there was forced to hold against numerically superior Russian forces. This region had been occupied by the Soviet Union before the war, but had been under German control since Barbarossa in 1941. Stalin wanted to retake the Baltics in order to secure air and naval bases for attacks on the German iron ore trade from Sweden, and further to facilitate an invasion of East Prussia. As it was, German control of the northern Estonian coast prevented the Soviet Baltic Fleet from operating. However, the German defenders benefited from the lakes and swamps on the Estonian-Russian border and further from the river behind which Narva was located. However, if Estonia were captured, the Soviets would gain a base of supply from which they could launch further operations against the Germans. Although the Germans were not critically outmatched in manpower, they had 123,000 men to the Soviet’s 200,000, they had less than a fourth the tanks and one fifth of the planes of their enemy. Thus, when the Soviets attacked on the second of February they were able to secure multiple beachheads on the western side of the Narva River. However, despite suffering from heavy bombardment, the Germans were able to prevent the Russians from expanding their bridgeheads for several weeks. Large numbers of Estonians volunteered to fight alongside the Germans, hoping that by forming military units they would be able to secure Estonian independence. However, Soviet attacks in the Ukraine and in Belarus forced Germany to move many formations south, leaving the defensive line in front of Narva untenable. Although several Soviet battle groups had been annihilated in March, the exit of Finland from the war freed up men and material for Baltic operations. This gave the Soviets four-to-one superiority and allowed them to take Narva on July 26th, although they sustained very heavy losses. Estonian troops saved the Germans from being cut-off and allowed them to withdraw to the Tannenberg Line. On July 29th, Soviet shock troops assaulted several hills that made up part of the line, and looked poised to take them. However, seven tanks under the command of Felix Steiner flanked the Soviet armored columns and forced them to retreat. This allowed a German counterattack to retake Grenadier Hill and stabilize the front. Subsequent assaults failed to break the Tannenberg Line and the offensive was terminated on August 10th.
The Soviet failure to take Estonia on August of 1944 merely delayed the eventual outcome for Germany. Failures on other parts of the line and the growing Soviet superiority in men and equipment eventually forced Germany to abandon the Baltics, leaving behind 200,000 men encircled in the Courland pocket. However, resistance by the Germans and Estonians did buy Finland time to negotiate an acceptable peace treaty with Stalin. Further, it provided inspiration for future Estonian nationalist movements which would contribute to the country’s fierce resistance to Soviet occupation.